It is a unique region, where nature and the climatic conditions are most suitable for cultivation of roses and a wide range of essential oil yielding plants. Rose, Rosa damascena, ext. Did you know: In 1886, the renown rose trading house “Kancho Shipkov” bought 92 984 vials of rose oil from various towns and villages across the Valley. It is reported that roses have been cultivated in the area since Roman times. India has also developed an industry producing rose oil, both "Rose Attar" and "Rose Absolutes", as well as "Rose Concrete". amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; The most city famous with this kind of flowers is Damascus, the capital of Syria, because it is the origin of it, and it takes it name from it. 'Celsiana' is a flowering semi-double variety. ), an important species among the scented roses, yields a highly fragrant commerically valuable essential oil. Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent. The resistant cells were 2.2 to 2.8 times larger and had about twice the amount of DNA and more chromosomes than the parental, sensitive cells. They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand. Before growing and trading with Rosa Damascena products, Bulgarians living in the Kazanlak and Karlovo valleys would grow various types of fruits and vegetables, craft different tools, and cloth, herd cattle and trade with neighbour regions. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "rfk0c9-20"; Your email address will not be published. It takes approximately 1500 roses to make just one milligram of oil – hence it is known as liquid gold. The Damascena Rose is one of the specific crop of the magnificent Valley of Dades. From John Parkinson, 'Theatrum botanicum' (London: Tho. Afterwards, the rose petals are put in big baskets made of willow branches again and are transported to the rose processing plant. The international relations of the bigger rose oil trading and producing companies would introduce new etiquette and cultural trends taken from other countries. A liquid culture system using nodal segments was used for shoot proliferation and root induction in Rosa damascena and R. bourboniana, two commercially-important species of scented rose. Clothing changed to city fashion even in the villages, The development of coppersmithing,  tinkering, barrel making, basketry. In the early 20th century, out of 479 farmers, 427 grew Rosa Damascena in addition to the usual crops. The annual average of hired rose pickers was over 3000. The Bulgarian rose producers were pretty good at finding ingenious ways to increase the quality of the rose oil, and as the local producers would say: the quality and quantity you can produce depends on 1. the quality of the rose petals and 2. the experience of the one who makes the rose oil. Rosa × damascena is a cultivated flower that is not found growing wild. The average growth of lands planted with roses was between 2 and 5 thousand square meters a year. [citation needed]. The rose picking period begins and lasts differently for the different regions. Rainy weather prolongs the rose-picking process and therefore eases the labour of the rose pickers as the rose petals bloom gradually. Hazard classification & labelling Hazard classification and labelling. December 12, 2019 @ 13 Cosmetics Ingredients containing ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER WATER. A strain of cultured cells of Rosa damascena Mill. Rosa damascena, also called damask roses, can be traced to Asia Minor. A study of 40 accessions, both cultivated and wild, from 28 provinces of Iran, identified nine genotypes and the authors argue that this shows Iran to be the centre of diversity for the damask rose ( Babaei et al 2007 ). Back in the day, rose producers would experiment with various techniques in order to produce higher quality rose otto. Rosa damascena Damask Rose. Learn how your comment data is processed. Rose water is often sprinkled on meat dishes, while rose powder is added to sauces. The roses are gathered by hand and brought to a central location for steam distillation. Name: rosa damascena mill. Sadly, the huge increase of rose plantations in the early 20th century was reduced to 23% after the end of World War II. The roses are a light to moderate pink to light red. There were many social, economic and cultural changes due to the vast development of rose oil production. wooden barrel filled with cold water which is used to cool the hot steam of the rose boiling barrel. Now when you go on a rose picking event in the valley, the locals will be amazed and will say: “Wow, how did you know how to pick roses? R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several. Gathering the flowers is intense manual labor. Soil science and plant productions Discipline Agronomy. Production of Apple Mosaic Virusâ  Free Pear and Rosa damascena Plants Through Tissue Culture. Most historians assume that the cultivation of the "Kazanlak rose", as Rosa × damascena is denominated in that region. ACTIVE MATTER: 50%. It is thought that cultivation of Rosa damascena originally developed in the Lyzangan Valley near Fars in Iran (Kiani et al 2008). For efficient and large scale induction of roots in microshoots, a rooting vessel was designed and developed to facilitate the micropropagation protocol. no GMO present. That is why it is so precious and is called ‘liquid gold’. John Parkinson (1567–1650) was an English herbalist and botanist. The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". Beyond being known for its heady fragrance, the Damask rose has long been used for rose oil or “attar of roses”, and is commonly used to flavour food and make rose water. The famous rose trader Ganyo Somov from Enina village would put rose vials in his belt and would travel to international fairs and exhibitions, trying to find the best price he can get. The traders would have relations with various companies from the perfume industry in the USA, France, Germany, UK etc. The modern production of high quality rose oil (or rose otto) by using a double distillation method began in the 17th century. Many more rose varieties are known, e. g., alba roses, which are probably hybrids of Rosa damascena with the central European wild species Rosa canina. Rosa × damascena (D) damask rose Join the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. Brief History of Rosa Damascena and its Origins. Geranium oil would be imported in Kazanlak from Spain, Italy, and even African countries in order to be mixed with real rose oil. June 5, 2018 @ Other local crafts such as carpet-making were changed by the rose and a new style of carpet and blanket weaving designs were created, called: alishta (алища) with the rose ornaments being at the core of the designs. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; Everything you need to know about the cosmetic ingredient ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER EXTRACT (Damask rose flower extract), CAS number 90106-38-0, functions (Masking, Tonic). You may like to make changes in the culture vessel type, gelling agents and incubation conditions of room to over come such problems. Seems like everyone wanted to test their entrepreneurial spirit or simply ensure their homes smell like roses throughout the year! Modern Western cookery does not use roses or rose water much. and Rosa rugosa Thunb. In Kazanlak it begins on the 5th of May and ends on the 20th of June, in Karlovo it begins on the 7th of May and ends on the 19th of June, in Nova Zagora, it begins on the 8th of May and ends on the 25th of June. In order to find out if any rose plants were frostbitten, the locals would pick a number of branches, stick them in potatoes and leave them behind their stoves for a few days, the ratio between fresh and dry branches would show whether they should hire more or fewer rose pickers. Other accounts state that the ancient Romans brought it to their colonies in England, and a third account is that the physician of King Henry VIII gifted him one circa 1540. When Spring comes, there is some kind of magic in the air, the birds sing, people smile and the scent of flowers brightens your mind! 1. Planting, hoeing, earing,  rose picking, transportation, taxes and even a 5% interest. You can almost feel the reason why the ancient Thracian tribes have decided to place their valley of Thracian kings inside the Valley of Roses, but let us not get distracted, I will write more about our Thracian heritage in another article! Another important trick is to not let any steam out which would decrease the amount of oil produced. The flower petals are also edible. High amounts of rain in May and June are crucial for the successful growth of the Damask Rose, with an average of 100mm per square meter of rainfall. Rosa damascena is among the most famous plants used as raw materials in cosmetics.Distinguished primarily for its fragrance, Rosa damascena has numerous valuable properties contributing to youthful and healthy skin.The abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, and anthocyanins is credited for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. It is cultivated for commercial use in an area in the vicinity of Kazanlak called the "Valley of Roses". amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "organic rose oil"; The various arguments to explain the evolution of Rosa damascena are pre-sented along with accessory information needed to evaluate them critically. Bravo!” And don’t forget to wear old clothes as the rose thorns will be all over you. Each village in the rose Valley had their special method of maintaining, planting and processing the rose petals. We just arrived yesterday June 3rd but only could see the parade on the street of kazanlak. Turkish rose oil is sold as "Rose Oil", "Turkish Rose Otto", and "Rosa Damascena Attar", or "Ittar" in similar languages. Kazanlak is the Cashmere of Europe, a Turkish Gullestan*.”, *Gullestan from Turkish means ‘rose valley‘ or ‘land of roses‘. Rosa damascena (other common names: damask rose, summer damask rose). The most common roses grown for their rose otto in the Valley of Roses are: The way you pick a rosebud properly is using your thumb, index and middle fingers. It has seen some revival in television cooking in the twenty-first century. Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill. The roses are still grown by the small family farms but the flowers are brought to stills established and regulated by the cooperative for distillation and quality control. The overall cost of having a 2000 square meter of rose plantation maintained costed 45 levs. Did you know: a kilogram of rose petals in 1900 cost 0.15 levs, in 1919 – 0.6 levs and i the 1930s – 20-25 levs. The hybrid is divided in two varieties:[3]. 6:36 am. The rose oil industry partially changed gold trading, iconography, woodcraft, architecture etc. The products of Damask rose are rose water, rose oil and dried petals that are used in medicine, food and perfume industry, as well as make-up and health products. For example, a typical Bulgarian method would be to have a metal tube which is put in an 80×80 cm. Rose water and powdered roses are used in Persian, Indian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. [3] Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.[4]. If the weather is sunny and dry, the rose-picking could go on for more than 10 hours each day and the rose petals are stored under shelters where they are sprayed with water as the farmers can not keep up with the rose boiling. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Gyulova rakia is made from the rose marks leftover from the rose extraction process. The notebooks of the old trading companies in the Rose Valley show that the commission taken would vary from 20 to 100%.