In addition, guidelines (Be Whale Wise: Marine Mammal Viewing Guidelines for Boaters, Paddlers and Viewers, 2006) have been established to address disturbance from close approaches whether on land or sea, and are often followed for pinniped viewing. (modified from Loughlin 1997 and Sease et al. However, fishing activity may be intensive near important sea lion breeding locations, and it has not been possible to eliminate competition with fisheries as a potential cause of the decline. British Columbia, Canada. Infected Steller sea lions can discharge feces contaminated with caliciviruses, and virus transmission can occur either directly or indirectly by intermediate or prey species in the tidal pools and kelp beds. While predator control programs were underway, dispersal of breeding females from rookeries in B.C. 1995). Foraging appears to occur primarily at night based on satellite telemetry (Loughlin et al. Thomas A. Jefferson, ... Robert L. Pitman, in Marine Mammals of the World, 2008. This would require a reservoir species such as fish or some lower life form or persistently infected seals that shed virus in infective doses. The ‘current level of concern’ and ‘mitigation potential’ for each threat is identified (Table 1). The dental formula is I32,C11,PC55. Nature. Among pinnipeds, it is inferior in size only to the walrus and the two species of elephant seals. Gulf of Alaska, Steller sea lion INTRODUCTION Steller sea lion populations (Eumetopias jubatus)de-clined by over 80% between the late 1970s and early 1990s in the western Gulf of Alaska and in the *Correspondence. Additional restrictions were placed on these commercial fisheries, resulting in the U.S. congress allocating a seven-fold increase in research funding beginning in 2000 with over 125 individual projects planned or implemented. Regime Shift)*, Un-regulated Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), Physical disturbance when on terrestrial habitat, Acoustic disturbance when in aquatic habitat, Habitat use (i.e. Impacts on other killer whale prey, such as harbour seals, could result in a shift in killer whale diet and increased predation on sea lions. In general, most Steller Sea Lions appear to feed within about 60 km of shore during summer, and can range over 200 km from shore in winter (Kenyon and Rice 1961; Merrick and Loughlin 1997). Total abundance in the United States and Russia of this subspecies was estimated to be 78,000 in 2011. through global climate changes) indicates that monitoring of the population is prudent. Two subspecies are recognized (Phillips et al., 2009), the eastern subspecies (Eumetopias jubatus monteriensis) includes animals occurring from California to Cape Suckling (144°W), near Prince William Sound, AK. The high uncertainty regarding occurrence and effects of single regime shift events, or the effects of chronic long-term alterations in ocean conditions (i.e. However, these activities do not significantly overlap with Steller Sea Lion distribution. Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act) and mitigate effects through remediation of habitat and other measures. Adult male Loughlin’s Steller sea lion vocalizing. Historically, the Western Population (Russia to Gulf of Alaska) was much larger than the Eastern Population (southeast (SE) Alaska to California), and accounted for roughly 90% of total abundance between the 1950s and 1970s (Kenyon and Rice 1961; Loughlin et al. This is in contrast to the side-to-side head wave of California sea lion males when they produce their characteristic repetitive bark. Females first ovulate at about 3-6 years of age. These codes of practice and regulatory tools may assist in mitigation of effects to Steller Sea Lion habitat. The main threat is likely through contact with heavy oil accumulations when the source of the spill is near important habitats such as rookeries and haulout sites, and to a lesser degree from absorption through the skin, incidental ingestion of oil directly or through feeding, exposure to vapours, and partial fouling of pelage from fresh oil (Smith and Geraci 1975; Engelhardt et al. French: lion de mer de Steller; Italian: leone marino di Steller m; Japanese: 胡獱 (トド, todo) Korean: 큰바다사자 (keunbadasaja) Lithuanian: šiaurinis jūrų liūtas; Norwegian: stellersjøløve; Polish: uchatek grzywiasty, uchatka grzywiasta, lew morski Stellera; Portuguese: … A regime shift that alters prey abundance from a high to low energy prey species (e.g. Distribution Steller sea lions are found from central California (formerly southern California), north to the Aleutian Islands, and west along the Aleutian chain to Kamchatka, and from there south along the Kuril Islands to northern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and Korea. Feeding and prey Steller sea lions feed on many varieties of fish and invertebrates. Steller's sea lions feed extensively on groundfish species, such as walleye pollock, targeted by fisheries. Steller sea lions suffered a significant decline in the western area of their U.S. range from the late 1970s through the 1980s (Braham et al. Resolution of the question of cause has become the focus of intensive political interest because of the potential economic consequences of resulting recovery actions by management authorities. Également appelée lion de mer, l'otarie de Steller est la plus grande des espèces d'otaries. 1992), suppression of the immune response (Mos et al., 2006) and disruption of vitamin A and thyroid hormone physiology (Tabuchi et al. 1999). Continued communication with First Nations groups interested in harvesting pinnipeds will assist in assessing future level of concern for population-scale impacts due to harvest. In contrast, the Loughlin’s Steller sea lion or eastern DPS had an estimated abundance of 65,000 in the United States and Canada in 2011, is increasing in numbers, and was taken off the US Endangered Species Act list in 2013. Brutdepomme. Threats (both natural and anthropogenic) have caused, or are causing, or may cause harm, death or behavioural changes to a species at risk or the destruction, degradation and/or impairment of its habitat to the extent that population-level effects occur. Sea lions use protected areas during storms, and wet areas during extremely hot weather (Edie 1977). The event seemed not to be food deprivation involving fish availability, because the body condition of the older animals (11 to 20) was not affected (Caulkins, 1986). coast, but rarely ventured more than 50 km from shore (Olesiuk and Jeffries, unpublished data). The Steller sea lions’ range overlaps with the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), but these two species are easily distinguished; the latter is darker and smaller. However, many of the 100 or so salmon farms currently operating in B.C. An additional example might be the introduction of a new virus to a naïve pinniped population, in which contaminant-associated toxicity may cause an increase in vulnerability, virus transmission, disease severity and/or mortality (Ross 2002). As such, they may alter the normal growth and development of exposed animals. Mean consumption in the SE Alaska population was estimated at 17 kg per individual per day (Winship and Trites 2003). These populations have local movements and migrations, with feeding cycles that occur near shore that can be daily. This interpretation is supported by counts at two prominent haul outs, The Needle in Montague Strait (PWS) and Cape St. Elias on Kayak I., where numbers plummeted by an average of at least 80% in the interval 1989–1990 to 1996 (Fig. However, a spill affecting a rookery during the breeding season could result in a significant population-level impact. The Steller sea lion, also known as the Steller's sea lion and northern sea lion, is a near-threatened species of sea lion in the northern Pacific. (2007) estimated that killer whales consumed 3-7% of the Steller Sea Lion population in Kenai Fjords annually, and 11% of pups born at their main study site on Chiswell Island, which could be significant for a species with such an inherently low rate of productivity. The U.S. government has implemented numerous measures for the conservation. Adult males are known to occasionally kill and consume young northern fur seals, harbor seals, and in one case, a juvenile California sea lion. The species is an important subsistence resource for Alaskan natives, who hunt sea lions for food and other uses. In most cases animals continue to use rookeries as haulout sites throughout the year, albeit in much reduced numbers. 2006). for predator control or subsistence harvest). 1999; Pitcher et al. Arrows denote breeding rookeries and shaded areas denote the approximate non-breeding range of the species. The marine debris documented to cause entanglements results mainly from lost fishing gear. Adult fur color varies between a light buff to reddish brown with most of the under parts and flippers a dark brown to black; naked skin is black. Quarterly reports filed by licence holders indicate that a total of 362 Steller Sea Lions plus 21 sea lions for which species could not be identified, were killed from 1990 (when the first permits were issued) up to 2003. The US National Marine Fisheries Service considers the species to be monotypic, managing it as western and eastern stocks, referred to as Distinct Populations Segments. Steller Sea Lions may appear greyish white when wet. 2005). From the Aleutians they range north across the Bering Sea to the Bering Strait. Figure 1. comm. Data for southeastern Alaska from, Virus Cycles in Aquatic Mammals, Poikilotherms, and Invertebrates, Éva E. Plagányi, Douglas S. Butterworth, in. Juveniles are darker than adults and are dark tan to light brown. In some cases, there are research programs addressing these uncertainties, but results are so far unavailable or inconclusive. The first and fifth toes are longer than the three middle toes, and the first toe, or hallux, is longer and wider than the fifth toe. Other common names used in Canada include Steller’s sea lion, northern sea lion and lion de mer de Steller. Lion de mer de Steller. Its name comes from Georg Steller, a german botanist and zoologist, he … Illegal KillsIllegal and undocumented killing of Steller Sea Lions is likely to occur in B.C., particularly since the species is perceived to have a negative impact on fish stocks and is known to depredate fishing operations. Steller sea lions have a massive, wide head. Stellers have deep voices and produce powerful low-frequency rolling roars that can be heard for long distances over the noise of wind and waves. 1995). Therefore, there is some concern for potential population-level impacts in the future (Table 1). Recovering Steller Sea Lion populations along the west coast of North America have sustained growth recovery rates of only about 3.1% per annum and have exhibited no signs of density dependence as populations increased, but it is not known whether this represents the maximum intrinsic rate of increase for the species or whether some stressor has been inhibiting recovery throughout this region for the past 40 years (Pitcher et al. 1998), and a survey of the entire northeast Pacific Ocean reported Steller Sea Lions to be the sixth most commonly observed prey of these whales (Wade et al. 1996). Several groups have argued that this decline is due in part to the large fishery harvest of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramme), simultaneously a key source of food for sea lions and the most important US commercial fishery. Based on extensive research since the decline was first recognized, the current consensus opinion is that ecosystem change or competition with fisheries are the most likely factors driving the decline. The later papers estimated time-varying vital rates that were consistent with the non-pup and pup counts and juvenile index data, assuming that the known vital rates were from the sampled animals at time 0. Mitigation potential refers to the likelihood that measures (future or existing) may mitigate or prevent negative effects to the population. Environmental Contaminants – Persistent Organic PollutantsPersistent environmental contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides (e.g. ... Bord de mer – Brut de Pomme 1. Currently, the Steller Sea Lion population in B.C. Deutsch: Stellerscher Seelöwe English: Steller's Sea Lion español: León marino de Steller français: Lion de mer Steller Iñupiak: Ugiġñaq 日本語: トド polski: Uchatka grzywiasta, lew morski Stellera 中文: 北海狮 Breeding site fidelity is another factor in disturbance of rookeries. Female Steller Sea Lions in Asian waters (Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Okhotsk Sea) appear to be genetically distinct from the other populations (Baker et al. 2004). 1983; Merrick and Loughlin 1997). 4.50(b)). Steller Sea Lions also consume many of the same prey resources sought by other predators, including humans (McAlister and Perez 1976; Kajimura and Loughlin 1988; Fritz et al. Abundance subsequently declined to about 116,000 by 1989, 97,500 by 1994-95, and 95,000 by 1999-2002. Also, smaller Stellers have little or no sagittal crest development and a nearly flat-topped head whereas comparably-sized adult and subadult California sea lion males have a moderate to large sagittal crest and more pronounced forehead. 2000; NMFS 2001; Gallucci et al. Given that other unknown compounding factors were not at work, these data suggest that during gestation or the first year of life something caused stunting of growth that was never overcome. (DFO 2008), it is unlikely that this threat currently impacts population viability (Table 1). 1980, Loughlin et al. Additionally, an increasing trend in population growth for Transient Killer Whales (Ford et al. Toxic SpillsSea lions may be impacted by catastrophic accidents such as toxic spills (St. Aubin 1990), although the impact on a population-wide scale has rarely been established. Taxonomic information Carnivora, Otariidae. This is a particular issue with counts from early years that were not always made at the optimal time. NMCAs are managed for sustainable use, and protected from industrial activities such as marine dumping, mining, and oil and gas exploration and development. The fourth breeding site in the Sea Otter Group was eradicated by predator control programs, although sea lions continued to use the site as a non-breeding haulout. comm.) Spies, ... Gordon H. Kruse, in Long-term Ecological Change in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, 2007. The area used by adult females for foraging in winter is considerably larger than the area used in the summer. Careful attention to head and muzzle size and shape, overall coloration, and length and width of fore- and hind-flippers permits separation. LesBaleines • July 27, 2018 84 Pins • 11 Followers Post Comment. displacement from feeding areas), Incidental take - fisheries and aquaculture, Low, potentially severe effects on individual animals, Effects can be enhanced by synergistic effects of threats, Regulated and unregulated contaminants of concern are listed in, The vast number of pinniped entanglements (110 out of 170) can be attributed to shark guards used at one site, and these have since been removed (, Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) management plan,, The effects of research activities such as disturbances at haulouts and especially rookeries and hot-branding on pup survivorship, Baseline levels of chemical and biological pollutants in the B.C. and fitted with satellite tags ranged widely along the B.C. However, given that a spill near a rookery (e.g. Female (top), and male (bottom) Loughlin’s Steller sea lions seen passing under the Golden Gate Bridge. Updated from Bigg (1985) (, Data have been grouped and totalled into 5-year periods, and are colour-coded by major breeding area. 1998; Loughlin et al. The present management objectives are to maximize economic return while maintaining the population over the 70% reference level, with an estimated probability of at least 80%. General increase in vessel traffic (motorized and self-propelled) along the B.C. Kuril Islands, Russia.